5.1. Features of a design
On Chery Amulet cars establish four-cylinder four-cycle petrol engines (fig. 5.1
and fig. 5.2), equipped with system of injection of fuel, with a ryadny arrangement of cylinders and with a camshaft placed in a head of the block of cylinders.
Fig. 5.1. Type of the engine on the left side: 1–cover of the gas-distributing mechanism; 2–cover of a head of the block of cylinders; 3–throttle knot; 4–sensor of provision of a butterfly valve; 5–idling sensor; 6–receiver; 7–sensor of absolute pressure; 8–stopper of a maslonalivny mouth; 9–ignition coil; 10-thermostat case; 11-head of the block of cylinders; 12-flywheel; 13-spark plugs; 14-final collector; 15-oil case of the engine; 16-block of cylinders; 17-water pump
Fig. 5.2. Type of the engine on the right side: 1–thermostat case; 2–ignition coil; 3–stopper of a maslonalivny mouth; 4–head of the block of cylinders; 5–nozzle; 6–index of level of oil; 7–fuel stage; 8–cover of a head of the block of cylinders; 9–receiver; 10-sensor of provision of a butterfly valve; 11-idling sensor; 12-valve of the conductor of an adsorber; 13-inlet pipe; 14-block of cylinders; 15-an opening stopper for oil plum; 16-oil case; 17-oil filter; 18-hose of ventilation of karterny gases; 19-flywheel; 20-the sensor of temperature of cooling liquid; 21-sensor of phases
The block of cylinders is cast from special high-strength cast iron that stiffens a design of the engine and durability.
Channels for the cooling liquid, coolings forming a shirt, are made on all height of the block, it improves cooling of pistons and reduces block deformations from a non-uniform overheat. The shirt of cooling is open in the top part towards a block head. In the lower part of the block of cylinders five support of radical bearings of the cranked shaft which covers are attached by bolts are located. In support the thin-walled steel-aluminum loose leaves which are carrying out function of bearings of a cranked shaft are established. In an average support there are pro-points into which the persistent half rings holding a cranked shaft from axial movings are inserted.
The cranked shaft is cast from special high-strength cast iron. Radical and shatunny necks of a shaft прошлифованы. For greasing of shatunny loose leaves in cranked to a shaft the oil channels closed by caps are drilled. Eight counterbalances which are located on cranked to a shaft are intended for reduction of vibrations.
On the forward end of a cranked shaft the oil pump, a gear pulley of a belt of a drive of a camshaft and a pulley of a drive of the generator, the compressor of the conditioner and the pump of the hydraulic booster of a steering is established.
Rods steel, shod, with covers on the bottom heads. In the bottom head of a rod thin-walled loose leaves are established, in the top head the stalebronzovy plug is pressed.
Pistons are cast from an aluminum alloy. On each of them three rings are established: two top — kompressionny and bottom — maslosjemny. The bottoms of pistons have a convex form.
The head of the block of cylinders is cast from an aluminum alloy, established from above on the block of cylinders. In the lower part of a head channels on which the liquid cooling chambers of combustion circulates are executed. In a head the camshaft is established. It rotates in the support executed in a head of the block.
The camshaft is cast from cast iron. For wear reduction working surfaces of cams, surfaces under an epiploon and the clown of a drive of the fuel pump термообработаны bleaching. Camshaft cams through hydropushers put in action levers, and levers — valves.
The engine has on two valves on the cylinder: one inlet and one final.
On each valve one spring is established.
Directing plugs and saddles of valves are pressed in a block head. On directing plugs the maslosjemny caps reducing hit of oil in cylinders are established.
The camshaft is put in action by a rubber gear belt from a cranked shaft.
Greasing system the combined: a razbryzgivaniye and under pressure. Under pressure radical and shatunny bearings and support of camshafts are greased. The system consists of an oil case, the shesterenchaty oil pump with a maslopriyemnik, the polnopotochny oil filter, the sensor of pressure of oil and oil channels.
The system of cooling of the engine consists of a shirt of cooling, a radiator with electrofans, the centrifugal water pump, the thermostat and hoses.
The power supply system consists of the electric fuel pump established in a fuel tank, throttle knot, the filter of thin purification of fuel, a regulator of pressure of fuel, nozzles and fuel hoses.
The power supply system functionally includes catching system паров fuels with the coal adsorber, preventing an exit паров fuels into the atmosphere.
At known skill and attentiveness it is possible to determine many malfunctions of the engine and its systems by color of the smoke leaving an exhaust pipe quite precisely. The dark blue smoke testifies to oil hit in combustion chambers, and a constant dymleniye — a sign of strong wear of details of tsilindroporshnevy group. Emergence of a smoke at peregazovka, after a long prokruchivaniye a starter, after long work idling or right after braking by the engine indicates, as a rule, wear of maslosjemny caps of valves. A black smoke — too rich mix because of malfunction of a control system of the engine or nozzles. The gray or dense white smoke with moisture impurity (especially after an engine overheat) means that cooling liquid got to the combustion chamber through the damaged laying of a head of the block of cylinders. At strong damage of this laying liquid sometimes gets and in an oil case, oil level sharply raises, and oil turns into a muddy whitish emulsion. A white smoke (steam) at not heated-up engine in damp or cold weather — the normal phenomenon.
Quite often it is possible to see the car standing in the middle of a city stopper with the open cowl, letting out puffs of vapor. Overheat. Better, of course, it not to allow, glancing at the temperature index more often. But nobody is insured from that the thermostat can unexpectedly refuse, the electrofan or will simply begin to flow cooling liquid. If you missed the overheat moment, do not panic and do not aggravate a situation. The overheat, as its possible consequences is not so terrible. Never at once suppress the engine — he will receive a heatstroke and, probably, остыв, in general will refuse to be got. Having stopped, let's to it work on single turns, then in system liquid circulation will remain. Include on the maximum capacity a heater and open a cowl. If there is a possibility, water a radiator with cold water. Only having achieved decrease in temperature, stop the engine. But never at once open a stopper of a broad tank: on the peregrety engine the geyser from under an open stopper is provided. Do not hurry, let's to everything cool down, so you keep health of the car and your own health.
Practically all instructions to the car contain the recommendation at engine start-up surely to squeeze out coupling. This recommendation is justified only in case of start-up in a hard frost not to spend energy of the storage battery for a provorachivaniye of shaft and transmission gear wheels in the thickened oil. In other cases it simply the recommendation in order that the car did not get under way, if on forgetfulness transfer is included. This reception is harmful to the engine as through the squeezed-out coupling the considerable effort is transferred to the persistent bearing of a cranked shaft, and at start-up (especially cold) greasing to it long does not arrive. The bearing quickly wears out, the cranked shaft receives axial люфт, the troganiye from a place starts to be accompanied by strong vibration. Not to spoil the engine, take in a habit to check before start-up position of the lever of gear shifting and to start up the engine at the tightened hand brake, without squeezing out coupling without emergency.